Designing Integrated Media Environments

Designing Integrated Media Environments

Entegre Ortam Tasarımı

12- Multimedia and YouTube


Three former PayPal employees-Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim wanted a place to share their videos and pictures with their friends. They created the service in February 2005. In 2007 they had already established local YouTube websites for 107 has started its service in Turkey in 2012. Nowadays, YouTube is a $15 billion-a-year business. The users upload 500 hours of video each minute on YouTube. Almost 5 billion videos are watched on YouTube every single day. YouTube gets over 30 million visitors per day.

Source: Statista “YouTube – Statistics & Facts” April 2020

In 2019, YouTube was visited 816.000.000 times from Turkey per month. On the other hand, the word “YouTube” was the highest search inquiry on Google.

In YouTube, we have different types of videos. These are;

  1. Music Videos
  2. Vlogs
  3. Unboxing Videos
  4. Game Videos
  5. Beauty (Haul) Videos
  6. Question-Answer Videos
  7. Reaction Videos
  8. Do-it-yourself Videos
  9. Challenge Videos
  10. Exercise Videos

Advantages of YouTube in Education

  1. Easy to Access
  2. Free of charge
  3. Easy to create and upload a video
  4. The big amount of resources
  5. Promotes self-regulated learning

Disadvantages of YouTube in Education

  1. Cyberbullying
  2. Addiction
  3. Violence
  4. Time-consuming
  5. Swear Words
  6. Privacy Issues
  7. Misinformation
  8. Encourage to consume

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11- Virtual Reality & Augmented Reality in Education


Virtual reality (VR) is a computer-generated environment designed to simulate three- dimensional (3D) physical environments that provide user interaction. VR is an immersed 3D virtual environment in which a learner acts through an avatar to engage with the other avatars for the explicit purpose of learning (Kapp & O’Driscoll, 2010). Virtual reality is a computer-generated simulation of a three-dimensional environment. How did virtual reality start in the history? Arıcı (2013) made a comment on how it started. Virtual reality technology started at the end of 1960s by Ivan Sutherland; in the upcoming years, it was drawn interest in the field of military, medicine, game and etc. With virtual reality, which was benefited in the field of education, the lessons are more attractive, instruction is more efficient and learners are more active in the instruction.

Benefits of Virtual Reality in Education

  • Provides outstandingvisualizationsthat aren’tpossiblein the traditionalclassroom.
  • Studentscan exploreandpracticetheylearn.
  • Experiencedifferentevents–past, presentandfuture
  • Safer ChemistryExperiments
  • Travel tospace, oranothercountry, withouthoppingon anyform of transport.
  • Sparkstudent’scuriosity
  • AllowstudentstosharetheirworldwithothersbyallowingthemtocreatetheirownVR content.

Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that expands our physical world, adding layers of digital information onto it. Unlike Virtual Reality (VR), AR does not create the whole artificial environments to replace real with a virtual one. AR appears in direct view of an existing environment and adds sounds, videos and graphics to it. AR uses a certain range of data (images, animations, videos, 3D models) may be used and people will see the result in both natural and synthetic light. Unlike VR, users are aware of being in the real world. AR an be displayed on various devices: screens, glasses, handheld devices, mobile phones, head-mounted displays.

Types of Augmented Reality

  1. Marker-basedAR: Itis known as image recognition. It requires a special visual object and a camera to scan it (QR code). A marker initiates digital animations for users to view. For ex. images in a magazine may turn into 3D models.
  2. Markerless AR: It is location-based reality that utilizes a GPS to provide data based on user’s location. With the availability of smartphones, this type of AR produces maps, directions and nearby businesses info.
  3. Projection-based AR: Projecting synthetic light to physical surfaces, and in some cases allows to interact with it.
  4. Superimposition-based AR: It replaces the original view with an augmented. Object recognition plays a key role.

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10- Game-Based Learning & Gamification


Game is a set of activities involving one or more players. It has goals, constraints, payoffs, and consequences. A game is rule-guided and artificial in some respects. Finally, a game involves some aspect of the competition (Dempsey, Haynes, Lucassen and Casey, 2002). Gamification is not about a game, but about the use of game elements in a non-gaming context. It is a method in which one or more game elements are processed in a process to better transfer knowledge. A similar definition of gamification is a set of activities and processes to solve problems by applying the properties of games. Game-based learning is the use of existing games or specially developed serious games to learn something or to achieve a specific learning outcome.

Game design elements:

  • Game mechanics: rewards, competition, feedback
  • Game dynamics: narrative, constraints
  • Game components: badges, points, leaderboards

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9- Multimedia in Foreign Language Learning & Tools for Foreign Language Learning


Information and communication technologies are probably the most used technologies for foreign language teaching. There is probably no teacher who, next to the standard textbooks, does not bring authentic materials, like city maps, newspaper articles, book reviews, recipes, poems, etc., to his/her classroom. All of these and even more can be found on the Internet. Just by using search engines on the web, one can access far away from libraries, find the on-line magazines that cover specific topics, send messages, discuss problems, or ask for help. This shows that new technology is not only a technical helping tool, but an educationally rich source for the teachers and their students (Dovedan, Seljan, & Vuckovic, 2001).

As German philosopher, Alexander von Humboldt has noticed ‘A language cannot be taught. One can only create conditions for learning to take place.’ and by using multimedia, one certainly creates such conditions.

Multimedia can support language learning process:

  • To raise interest level — students appreciate (and often expect) a variety of media 
  • To enhance understanding — rich media materials boost student comprehension of complex topics, especially dynamic processes that unfold over time
  • To increase memorability — rich media materials lead to better encoding and easier retrieval

The use of words and pictures to provide meaningful input, facilitate meaningful interaction with the target language, and elicit meaningful output. Instructional strategies for language learning that involve multimedia focus on multimedia learning theories based on cognitive psychology. 

Second Language Acquisition with Multimedia:

  • Structural Perspective focuses on the system of structures that defines a language and views language learning as the formation of habits. 
  • Cognitive Perspective emphasizes the importance of considering the mental processes involved in learning. 
  • Constructivist Perspective based on comprehensible and natural input, allows learners to develop their linguistic competence and construct their grammar of the language.

Multimedia Tools for Foreign Language Learning

  • Interactive Multimedia: Thinglink, Edpuzzle, Genially, Playposit, Phet 
  • Collaboration Tools: Mentimeter, Padlet, Google Docs/Slides/ Sheets/Jamboard, Nearpod, Twiddla
  • Poster Making: Easelly, Postermywall, Glogster, Picktochart, Canva
  • Mind Mapping: Popplet, Mindmeister, Bubbl, Mindmup, Goconqr, Coggle, Mapul, Free mind, Xmind
  • Quiz: Socrative, Kahoot, Quizziz, Quiz Maker, Online Quiz Creator 

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8- Multimedia in Mobile Learning and Social Media


Mobile learning, also known as m-Learning, is defined as the need and ability to learn through virtual media, such as personal electronic gadgets, social interactions, and content. M-Learning refers to Mobile Learning. The term is used to depict a form of learning where knowledge is disseminated to students through a handheld or portable devices. On the other hand, e-Learning refers to a form of education where learning instruction is delivered via the internet using electronic devices like PCs and laptops.This mode of learning can be channelled through an online Learning Management System (LMS) or a video conference system.

Alan Kay is the name behind the introduction of the m-Learning concept in the 1970s. He developed Dynabook in 1968 while he was a PhD candidate. IBM Simon and Clickers are other examples of the ancestors of m-Learning devices. Today people use smartphones, tablets, laptops and even game consoles.

Benefits of m-Learning

  1. Interaction: Student interacting with instructors and among each other.
  2. Portability: PDAs are lighter than books and enable to student to take notes or input data directly into the device regardless of location either typed, handwritten or using voice.
  3. Collaborative: Enables several students to work together with assignments even while at distant locations.
  4. Engaging learners: The new generation likes mobile devices, phones and game devices.
  5. Increase motivation: Ownership of the handheld devices seems to increase commitment to using and learning from it.
  6. Bridging of the digital divided: Since handhelds are more affordable than larger systems they are accessible to a large percentage of the population.
  7. Just-in-time learning: Increases work/learning performance and relevance to the learner.
  8. May assist learners with some disabilities.

Challenges in m-Learning

  1. The small screen of mobile phones and PDAs
  2. Limited storage capacities in PDAs
  3. Battery life/charge
  4. Lack of a common operating system
  5. Lack of a common hardware platform makes it difficult to develop content for all
  6. Limited potential for expansion with some devices
  7. Devices can become out of date quickly
  8. Wireless bandwidth is limited and may degrade with a large number of users
  9. Difficulties with printing, unless connected to a network

Social media is defined as the websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking. Social media encompasses a wide range of websites and apps. Some, like Twitter, specialize in sharing links and short written messages.

The Benefits of Using Social Media in Education

  1. It serves as a platform for informal learning.
  2. It can shorten the time required to get trained as information can be rolled out much faster.
  3. It enables faster responses and more contributors from different perspectives.
  4. It is free of charge.
  5. It allows the interaction between the peers within groups, so the learning can continue even after the learning event is over.

The Challenges of Using Social Media in Education

  1. It can lead one social media addiction.
  2. Too much time spent scrolling through social media can result in symptoms of anxiety and/or depression.
  3. Fake news and misleading information can go viral.
  4. Teenagers, in particular, are at risk of cyberbullying.
  5. Privacy may be an issue.

You can watch John Traxler’s video below who is a Professor of Digital Learning at the University of Wolverhampton. The context in the video overlaps the situation today pandemic environment despite the video was recorded five years ago.

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7- Multimedia Design in Distance Education


It is important to understand what is meant by distance learning because technology is evolving, the definition of what distance learning continues to change (Merisotis& Phipps, 1999). On distance learning, tutor and student are separated spatially and by time (Liuet. al., 2008) and it relates to programmes of study which are delivered entirely off-campus (Croft et. al., 2010). Distance Learning improved capabilities in knowledge and/or behaviours as a result of mediated experiences that are constrained by time and/or distance such that the learner does not share the same situation with what is being learned (King et. al., 2004).

Modes of Interactions in Distance Learning

E-learning means instruction delivered via a computer that is intended to promote learning (Clark & Mayer, 2003). E-learning consists of new methods for distance education based on computer and network technologies (Georgievet al., 2004).

M-learning is not focused on the contents but, rather, on the processes that lead to knowledge and competence within new learning environments and contexts (Ranieri and Pieri, 2014).

The idea of ubiquitous learning creates a new concept of time and space where students and teachers can be connected at all times and everywhere (Norris and Soloway, 2011).

There are lots of illustrations which try to explain the relationship within these learning types. You can see the most common ones below.   

M-Learning vs. E-Learning vs. D-Learning

There are two modes of communication in Distance Education. One of is Synchronous communication and the other one is Asynchronous communication. Comparison of these two modes can see below.

Modes of Communication in DE

Few trends in education over the past half-century match the sudden arrival of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In a span of only a few years, MOOCs have received tremendous coverage in mainstream media, traditional academic conferences and journals, and blogs and social media (Siemens, 2013). M letter indicates that a large number of learners. First O letter indicates that the content available free to anyone. Second O letter indicates that the availability via the internet. Finally, letter C indicates that the course within a fixed set of dates. Coursera, edX and Udemy are some examples of MOOCs. You can see some emerging trends of MOOCs below.

learning management system (LMS) is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting, automation and delivery of educational courses, training programs, or learning and development programs. The learning management system concept emerged directly from e-Learning. Although the first LMS appeared in the higher education sector, the majority of the LMSs today focus on the corporate market. Learning Management Systems make up the largest segment of the learning system market (Ellis, 2009).

Top 20 Learning Management Systems

content management system (CMS) is computer software used to manage the creation and modification of digital content. CMSs are typically used for enterprise content management (ECM) and web content management (WCM). ECM typically supports multiple users in a collaborative environment by integrating document managementdigital asset management and record retention (Wiley & Sons, 2005).

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6- Web 2.0 Applications (Assessment, Evaluation and Gamified Tools)


Assessment is defined as the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources  to find out what students know, understand and can do with their knowledge. It aims to refine programs and improve students’ learning and development (Huba and Freed, 2000). There are two types of assessment that called Formative Assessment and Summative Assessment.

Evaluation is a process which is designed to provide information that will help to make a judgment about a given situation (Kizlik, 2012).

Gamification is defined as the application of game elements and digital game design techniques to non-game situations to engage and motivate people to achieve their goals (Mert and Samur, 2018). Gamification is not mean to game-based learning. The diagram below shows that the principles of gamification.

You can find some Web 2.0 assessment, evaluation and gamified tools below.

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5- Web 2.0 Applications: Video, Animation & Sound


The World Wide Web (WWW) has been through many changes since its beginnings and has become the largest information platform worldwide. When Tim Berners-Lee published his ideas for hypertext in 1989, he could not have guessed how he would change our lives. Due to technical progress made since then, its use has become more and more intuitive and users can provide their content for public use more and more easily. Similarly, when O’Reilly Media coined the term “Web 2.0” in 2004, they combined a set of concepts under one notion. Besides, version numbers can be used to different evolutionary steps of the Web, as it is common practice with software systems (Weber & Rech, 2010).

The first stage, Web 1.0, is about connecting information; Web 2.0 is about connecting people; Web 3.0 is about integrating data, knowledge, and applications on the Web and putting them to work in ways that make the Web more meaningful and about making Web as a collaborative platform; and Web 4.0 is about harnessing the power of human and machine intelligence on a ubiquitous Web, where both people and computers not only interact but also reason and assist each other in smart ways.

Web 1.0, Web 2.0, Web 3.0 and Web 4.0 will continue to coexist, one supporting or forming the foundation fort he others.

Web 2.0 is founded on seven key characteristics: participation, standards, decentralization, openness, modularity, user control, and identity.

Web 2.0 is expressed in two key domains: the Open Web and Enterprise.

The heart of Web 2.0 is how it converts inputs such as User Generated Content (USG), opinions, applications, through a series of processing activities that involve recombination, collaborative filtering, structures, syndication to create emergent outcomes that are of value to the user and the entire community.

Considering the progress of web and other learning dimensions, the role of educators evolved to the facilitator. Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget had predicted the role of educator as a facilitator almost half a century ago. You can see this progress in the table below.

Canole & Alevizou (2010) categorised the Web 2.0 tools according to the teaching-learning activities.

Categorized Web 2.0 Tools:

  1. Content Management Systems (CMS/WCMS)
  2. Online Meeting
  3. Online Storage & File Sharing
  4. Interactive Presentations
  5. Online Survey
  6. Concept Map & Drawing Tools
  7. Animation & Video
  8. Word Clouds or Tag Clouds

This is an example of a short animation created with Animaker.

This is an example of a short video (10s) created with Powtoon.

This is another example of a short video (1.30 min) created with Powtoon.

This video shows how we can cut and mix audio files with 123Apps.

This is two examples of short audio created with 123Apps.

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4- Message Design: Graphic & Text Design


Instructional message design explores how various media and delivery systems might be used more effectively to help optimize instructional communications within context-specific instructional situations and learner needs (Bishop, 2013). According to Fleming & Levie (1978), it is the process of manipulating or planning for the manipulation of, (written and spoken communication) that may provide the conditions for learning. Learning is facilitated when the graphics and text work together to communicate the instructional message (Clark & Mayer, 2016).

Message design involves two main aspects; graphic design and text design. There are two main types of graphics: static and dynamic. Pictures, photos, maps, charts are examples of static graphics. If there are theoretical information to teach, static graphics can be a better choice. Video and animations are examples of dynamic graphics. If there are procedural concepts to teach or our topics related to subject matter hands-on training, dynamic graphics can be better.

Graphics can be classified into 6 groups depending on their use in multimedia design:

  1. Decorative: Decorative graphics are usually added for aesthetic, humorous, or motivational purposes. However, excessive use of decorative graphics risks interfering with essential mental learning processes needed to promote learning.
  2. Representational: Representational visuals portray the actual appearance of lesson content. The goal is to illustrate what the content looks like realistically. Some examples include illustrations of a keyboard, a line drawing of a braking system, or a software application screen.
  3. Organizational: Representational visuals portray the actual appearance of lesson content. The goal is to illustrate what the content looks like realistically. Some examples include illustrations of a keyboard, a line drawing of a braking system, or a software application screen.
  4. Relational: Relational visuals are used to communicate quantitative relationships among two or more variables and include charts and diagrams such as pie charts, line graphs, and bar charts.
  5. Transformational: Transformational visuals communicate change over time or space. The surface features of transformational graphics can include animations, video, or line drawings with movement indicators.
  6. Interpretive: Interpretive graphics help learners build an understanding of events or processes that are invisible, abstract or both.

Text design is also an important point during the message design process. The designer should choose user-friendly typography. Texts should be readable and legible.

The designer should consider the important factors related to user-friendly design which are bullet pointing below.

  • Line length
  • Kerning
  • Tracking
  • Leading
  • Alignment
  • Typeface & Font
  • Size
  • Weight & With
  • Style
  • Highlight types

Emotions are a result of an individual’s judgment about the world and appraisal of interactions with and in the world (Desmet, 2002; Frijda, 1993; Oatley & Johnson-Laird, 1987; Ortony, Glore, & Collins, 1988). Emotions can be described along two dimensions that affect performance, valence (positive-negative) and activation (activating deactivating) (Pekrun, 1992; Russell, 2003).

Colours, shapes and voices influence human emotions during a presentation. On the other hand, all these components can increase cognitive load. The designer should consider all the emotional design principles.

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3- Design Principles in Multimedia Learning


There are three instructional goals in multimedia learning. First one is minimising the extraneous processing. Second one is manage the essential processing and the last one is the fostering generative processing. These are all critical points related to the effective design. Based on this three-goal, Richard Mayer constructed a theory of Principles of Multimedia Learning. This theory consists of 12 different principles.

  1. Minimize extraneous processing
  2. Manage essential processing
  3. Foster generative processing
  1. Coherence Principle: People learn better when extraneous words, pictures, and sounds are excluded rather than included.
  2. Signalling Principle: People learn better when cues that highlight the organization of the essential material are added.
  3. Redundancy Principle: People learn better from graphics and narration than from graphics, narration, and printed text.
  4. Spatial Contiguity Principle: Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen.
  5. Temporal Contiguity Principle: People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively.
  6. Segmenting Principle: People learn better when a multimedia message is presented in user-paced segments rather than as a continuous unit.
  7. Pre-training Principle: People learn more deeply from a multimedia message when they know the names and characteristics of the main concepts.
  8. Modality Principle: People more deeply from pictures and spoken words than from pictures and printed words.
  9. Multimedia Principle: People learn better from words and pictures than from words alone.
  10. Personalization Principle: People learn better from multimedia lessons when words are in conversational style rather than formal style.
  11. Voice Principle: People learn better when the narration in multimedia lessons is spoken in a friendly human voice rather than a machine voice.
  12. Image Principle: People do not necessarily learn better from a multimedia lesson when the speaker’s image is added to the screen.

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2- Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning


Good instructional design is driven by our knowledge of human cognitive structures and how those structures are organized into a cognitive architecture. Without knowledge of relevant aspects of human cognitive architecture such as the characteristics of intricate relations between working memory and long-term memory, the effectiveness of the instructional design is likely to be random. Cognitive load theory has been one of the theories used to integrate our knowledge of human cognitive structures and instructional design principles (Sweller & Paas, 2005).

John Sweller identifies the theory that focuses the load on working memory during instruction. According to the theory, knowledge is categorised to Biologically primary knowledge and Biologically secondary knowledge. Cognitive load theory is concerned primarily with the acquisition of biologically secondary knowledge. There are three types of cognitive load.

  1. Intrinsic Cognitive Load: the “thinking” part of cognitive learning theory. The amount of “thinking” or “intrinsic load” affects the learning capacity. It is determined by levels of element interactivity (Sweller, 2010).
  2. Extraneous Cognitive Load: caused by high levels of element interactivity. Inappropriate instructional designs require learners to use working memory resources to process elements that do not lead to knowledge acquisition. This form of cognitive load is generated by how information is presented to the learner.
  3. Germane Cognitive Load: is “effective” cognitive load and used in forming in schemas. Refers to working memory resources dealing with intrinsic rather than extraneous cognitive load, thus facilitating learning.
Balance between Cognitive Load and Cognitive Capacity

There are three assumptions of a cognitive theory of multimedia learning.

  1. Dual-Channel Assumption:  Humans possess separate channels for processing visual and auditory information. This assumption is related to Paivo’s dual coding theory and Baddeley’s model of working memory.
  2. Limited Capacity: Humans are limited in the amount of information that can be processed in each channel at one time. Cognitive overload can happen if too much information is exposed.
  3. Active Processing: Humans engage in active learning by attending to relevant incoming information, organizing selected information into coherent mental representations, and integrating mental representations with other knowledge.
The Overview of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning

Complex learning is “the integration of knowledge, skills, and attitudes; the ability to coordinate qualitatively different constituent skills; and the transfer of what is learned to daily life or work settings”. The Four-Component Instructional Design Model (4C/ID) adopts a holistic approach to instructional design for the acquisition of complex learning.

According to the 4C/ID model, four components are necessary for complex learning:

  1. Learning tasks
  2. Supportive information
  3. Procedural information
  4. Part-task practice
The Four Component Instructional Design Model (4C/ID)

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1- Multimedya Öğrenme


Çok Ortamlı Öğrenim

Multimedya öğrenim, kelimelerden ve resimlerden öğrenmedir. Multimedya öğrenim hipotezine göre, insanlar sadece kelimelerden ziyade, kelimeler ve resimlerden daha derin öğrenebilirler. Mayer (2005)’e göre multimedya, kelimeler ve resimlerin beraber sunulmasıdır. Burada kelimeler yazılı veya sözlü olabilir. Resimler ise resimsel formda sunulan çizimler, grafikler, diyagramlar, haritalar veya fotoğraflar gibi statik grafikler olabildiği gibi, animasyon veya video gibi dinamik grafiklerde olabilir. Mayer multimedya öğrenimin, kelimelerden ve resimlerden bir mental tasvir inşa etme olduğunu söyler. Multimedya öğretimin ise kelimelerin ve resimlerin, istenilen öğrenmeyi destekleyici şekilde sunulması olduğuna vurgu yapar.

Multimedya öğreniminde bahse konu mental prosesin odakta olduğu dört ana teori vardır. Bunlar Mayer’in Multimedya Öğreniminin Bilişsel Teorisi, Sweller’in Bilişsel Yük Teorisi, Scnotz’un Yazı ve Resim Kavrayışının Bütüncül Modeli ve Merrienboer’in Öğretim Tasarımı Teorisinin Dört Bileşenidir. Bu teorilerin ışığında hareket ederken dikkat edilmesi gereken diğer bir hususta yaklaşım tarzıdır. Multimedya tasarımı ve sunumunda iki ana yaklaşımı Teknoloji Merkezli Yaklaşım ve Öğrenci Merkezli Yaklaşım oluşturur.

Teknoloji merkezli yaklaşımda “Multimedya sunumlarının dizaynında, multimedyanın fonksiyonel yeteneklerini nasıl kullanabiliriz?” sorusu sorulmaktadır. Burada odak nokta genellikle son teknolojinin avantajlarını multimedya içeriklerinde kullanmadır. Teknoloji merkezli yaklaşımın alevinin çok hızlı parladığı ve bu parıltının beklenenden önce söndüğü birçok örneğe rastlamak mümkündür. 1922 yılında Thomas Edison’un, kitaplara dayalı eğitim sisteminin yerini birkaç sene içerisinde sinema filmlerinin tamamen alacağı öngörüsü gerçekleşmemiştir. Benzer şekilde 1932 yılında Benjamin Darrow ve 1945 yılında William Levenson radyo alıcılarının sınıflarda, kara tahta kadar yaygın kullanılır hale geleceği öngörüsünde bulunmuşlardır. Bununda gerçekleşmediği aşikardır. 1950’lerde televizyon yayını yoluyla başlayan kıtasal sınıf denemesi öğretmenlerden yeterince ilgi görmemiştir. 1970’lerde ki bilgisayar tabanlı öğretim sistemleri olan PLATO ve TICCIT ise yine geleneksel eğitim sistemleri karşısında tutunamamıştır. Bu girişimlerin hepsinde aynı kısır döngüyü görmek mümkündür. İlk olarak teknolojinin eğitimde nasıl büyük bir devrim gerçekleştireceği gibi büyük sözlerle başlanır. Daha sonra en son teknolojiyi okullarda hızlı bir şekilde devreye alma aşaması gerçekleşir. Son olarak birkaç on yıllık perspektif içerisinde umutlarla beklentilerin çoğunlukla örtüşmediği görülür. İçinde bulunduğumuz 21. yüz yıldaki birçok girişimle büyük benzerlikler gösteriyor değil mi?

Peki bu teknolojilerin genel kabul görmemesinin nedeni nedir? Aslında cevap çok basit: Teknolojiyi öğrencilerin/insanların ihtiyaçlarına adapte etmek yerine, öğrenciler/insanlar en son teknolojilerin taleplerine adapte edilmeye zorlanmıştır. Bu tecrübelere istinaden Öğrenci merkezli yaklaşım önemli bir alternatif olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır.

Öğrenci merkezli yaklaşım insan aklının nasıl çalıştığını anlamaya çalışarak şu soruyu sorar: “İnsanın öğrenmesini iyileştirebilmek için multimedyayı nasıl adapte edebiliriz?”. Burada odak nokta multimedya teknolojisinin insanın bilişsel kavrayışına bir araç/yardım olarak kullanılmasıdır. Bu bağlamda geliştirilmiş olduğu bilinen ilk multimedya öğrenme teknolojisi,1658 yılında ilk baskısı gerçekleşen John Comenius’a ait Orbis Pictus (Resimlerdeki Dünya) isimli bir resimli çocuk kitabıdır. Comenius’un başarısındaki ana unsur öğrenci merkezli yaklaşımdır. Örnekleri çoğaltmak ve konuyu açmak mümkün. Ancak konuyu günümüze bağlayıp kafalarda oluşacak soru işareti ile yazıyı tamamlamak daha çekici geliyor bu noktada.

Yüksek hızlı internet ve intranet, neredeyse sınırsız özellikleri olan görüntü ve ses işleme programları, arttırılmış ve sanal gerçeklik, yapay zekâ algoritmaları, cebimize kadar girmiş hatta bedenimize entegre edilebilecek boyutlarda küçük ve hızlı bilgisayarlar, daha sayamadığım yüzlerce akıl almaz teknoloji. Geçtiğimiz yüz yıllara göre çok farklı bir noktada olduğumuz kesin. Sizce bütün sınıflara holografik görüntü sağlayan donanımlar koyup sınırsız internet sağlasak fena olmaz mı? Bütün öğrencilere tablet dağıtalım ve sınırsız internet sunalım. Hatta öğrencilerin akademik takibini yapay zekâ algoritmalarının analizine bırakalım. Bütün eğitim içeriğini de görsel, işitsel ve yazılı olarak zenginleştirelim. Başarılı olmama ihtimali zayıf gibi duruyor değilmi? Burada kesin sonucu yaklaşım tarzımız belirleyecektir. Tüm bu teknolojik araçları eğitime entegre ederken kendimize hangi soruyu soruyoruz acaba. Yukarıda bahsettiğim yaklaşımlardan öğrenci merkezli sorular soruyorsak başarı ihtimali daha yüksek görünüyor bana göre. Eğitim ihtiyaç analizi, öğrenen analizi, içerik analizi, çevre analizi, eğilim analizi gibi ön incelemeler bizi otomatikman öğrenci merkezli yaklaşıma yönlendirecektir.

Donald Norman 1994 tarihli “Bizi Zeki Yapan Şeyler” isimli kitabında şöyle diyor: “Teknoloji bizi zeki yapabilir-o teknoloji bizim bilişsel kapasitemizi genişletebilen teknolojidir”. Buradan çıkarımla sadece davranışsal değil, özellikle insanın bilişsel sürecine hitap eden, iyi tasarlanmış ve öğrenenin ihtiyaçlarıyla örtüşen multimedya teknolojileri, öğrenen merkezli yaklaşımla sunulduğunda, eğitimde teknolojinin reddedilemez nimetlerinden yararlanmaya gerçekten başlayabileceğimize inanıyorum.

Fatih Cebeci